Neurobiological Basis of Migraine

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  • Edited By: Turgay Dalkara, Michael A. Moskowitz
  • ISBN: 9781118967195
  • Publisher: Wiley Publishing
  • Edition: 1st
  • Publication Date: August 15, 2017
  • Format: Hardback – 424 Pages
  • Language: English


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Description

Published with the New York Academy of Sciences

A timely, broad-ranging exploration of the neurobiological basis and molecular mechanisms of migraines

Migraines impact the lives of a significant portion of the world’s population, afflicting sufferers with severe pain, nausea, and often visual impairment. The WHO views migraines as an important public health issue, and ranks them in its top twenty most disabling illnesses. Neurobiological Basis of Migraine reviews the latest advances made in our understanding of the primary basic mechanisms of migraine headache and provides valuable insights into how these findings are being translated into novel treatment and prevention strategies around the world.

Written for researchers and clinicians alike, the book features edited contributions from distinguished experts in the field, taking a focused, yet wide-ranging approach to the subject. It begins by exploring the pathways and networks mediating migraine headaches, their underlying physiological mechanisms, characteristics of visceral pain, and the concept of dural neurogenic inflammation. From there the authors delve into the mechanisms sustaining the head pain and photophobia associated with migraines, and they review the pharmacology of newly discovered migraine treatments. These basic chapters are followed by clinical and genetic studies linking to key issues, including cortical spreading depression, ion channels, transporters, and epilepsy.

  • Reviews of the latest advances in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of migraine
  • Translates important research findings from around the globe into novel treatments strategies currently being investigated
  • Provides researchers and clinicians with a deep understanding of the primary mechanisms of migraine from migraine modeling to clinical applications
  • Includes contributions by many of the most respected researchers in the field, world-wide
  • Discusses exciting recent developments in migraine mutations and their role in CSD, as well as the role of CSD in aura and trigeminal activation

Timely, comprehensive, and authoritative, Neurobiological Basis of Migraine is an indispensable working resource for clinicians and migraine, headache, and pain researchers, including neurobiologists, neuropharmacologists, neurologists, and vascular neurobiologists, as well as graduate students in those fields who are involved in researching migraine headaches.

Table of Contents
  1. List of Contributors xv
  2. Foreword xxi
  3. Part I Anatomy and physiology 1
    1. Functional anatomy of trigeminovascular pain 3 By Karl Messlinger and Mária Dux
      1. Anatomy of the trigeminovascular system 3
      2. Trigeminal ganglion 9
      3. Trigeminal brainstem nuclear complex 12
    2. Physiology of the meningeal sensory pathway 31 By Andrew Strassman and Agustin Melo-Carrillo
      1. Anatomy of the trigeminovascular system 31
      2. Nociceptive response properties of peripheral and central neurons in the meningeal sensory pathway 32
      3. Activity of neurons in the meningeal sensory pathway under conditions associated with headache: CSD and nitroglycerin 36
      4. Role of blood vessels in activation of the meningeal sensory pathway 38
      5. Unique neuronal properties of the meningeal sensory pathway 39
      6. Intracranial vs extracranial mechanisms of migraine: new findings 40
      7. References 41
    3. Meningeal afferent ion channels and their role in migraine 49 By Gregory Dussor PhD
      1. Meningeal afferents and migraine pain 49
      2. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and headache 49
      3. Acid-sensing ion channels 54
      4. Glutamate-gated channels 55
      5. ATP-gated channels 55
      6. K+ channels 56
      7. Other ion channels that may contribute to dural afferent signaling 57
      8. Conclusions 57
      9. Acknowledgements 58
      10. References 58
    4. Functional architecture of central pain pathways: focus on the trigeminovascular system 69 By Rodrigo Noseda and Luis Villanueva
      1. Introduction 69
      2. Ascending trigeminal nociceptive pathways 69
      3. Trigeminovascular pain is subject to descending control 77
      4. Conclusions 82
      5. References 83
  4. Part II Special features of migraine pain 91
    1. Visceral pain 93 By Michael S. Gold and G.F. Gebhart
      1. Organization of innervation 93
      2. Common features of visceral pain and headache 96
      3. Summary and conclusions 101
      4. Acknowledgement 101
      5. References 102
    2. Meningeal neurogenic inflammation and dural mast cells in migraine pain 107 By Dan Levy PhD
      1. Introduction 107
      2. The neurogenic inflammation hypothesis of migraine 108
      3. Meningeal neurogenic plasma protein extravasation and migraine 108
      4. Meningeal neurogenic vasodilatation and migraine 110
      5. Neurogenic mast cell activation in migraine 111
      6. Endogenous events that could promote meningeal NI in migraine 113
      7. Anti-migraine drugs and meningeal NI 113
      8. Is meningeal NI a pro-nociceptive event in migraine? 114
      9. Conclusions 115
      10. References 116
    3. Sensitization and photophobia in migraine 125 By Aaron Schain and Rami Burstein
      1. Introduction 125
      2. Experimental activation of trigeminovascular pathways 125
      3. Peripheral sensitization 127
      4. Central sensitization: medullary dorsal horn 127
      5. Central sensitization: thalamus 129
      6. Temporal aspects of sensitization and their implications to triptan therapy 129
      7. Modulation of central sensitization 131
      8. Neural substrate of migraine-type photophobia 133
      9. References 135
    4. Central circuits promoting chronification of migraine 139 By Christopher W. Atcherley, Kelsey Nation, Milena De Felice, Jennifer Y. Xie, Michael H. Ossipov, David W. Dodick and Frank Porreca
      1. Introduction 139
      2. Pharmacotherapy of migraine 140
      3. Medication overuse headache (MOH) and migraine chronification 141
      4. Central circuits modulating pain 143
      5. Evaluation of descending modulation: diffuse noxious inhibitory controls and conditioned pain modulation 145
      6. Conclusions 148
      7. References 149
    5. Triptans to calcitonin gene-related peptide modulators – small molecules to antibodies – the evolution of a new migraine drug class 157 By Richard J Hargreaves
      1. Introduction 157
      2. Trigeminovascular system – migraine physiology and pharmacology 157
      3. Small molecule CGRP receptor antagonists 159
      4. Current status of small molecule CGRP receptor antagonist programs 161
      5. Unraveling the site of action of small molecule CGRP receptor antagonists using clinical pharmacology and brain imaging 162
      6. Biologic approaches to CGRP modulation 163
      7. Summary and conclusion 167
      8. References 168
    6. Lessons learned from CGRP mutant mice 175 By Levi P. Sowers, Annie E. Tye and Andrew F. Russo
      1. Introduction 175
      2. Modeling migraine 175
      3. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in migraine 176
      4. What has CGRP manipulation in mice taught us about migraine? 177
      5. Conclusions 183
      6. References 183
  5. Part III Clinical characteristics of migraine 189
    1. The clinical characteristics of migraine 191 By F. Michael Cutrer MD, Ryan Smith MD and David W. Dodick MD
      1. Overview of migraine 191
      2. Migraine prodrome 191
      3. The migraine headache is the centerpiece of the syndrome 192
      4. Migraine aura 194
      5. Proposed aura types 197
      6. Postdrome 198
      7. Status migrainosus 199
      8. Summary 199
      9. References 199
    2. The premonitory phase of migraine 201 By Michele Viana and Peter J. Goadsby
      1. What is the premonitory phase? Towards a definition 201
      2. How common are premonitory symptoms? 202
      3. Do premonitory symptoms reliably predict a migraine attack? 202
      4. Premonitory symptoms in individuals 203
      5. Intra-patient variability of the premonitory phase 203
      6. Difference between patients with and without premonitory symptoms 204
      7. Premonitory symptoms in children 204
      8. Premonitory symptoms and migraine triggers 204
      9. Premonitory symptoms and pathophysiological studies 205
      10. Treatment during the premonitory phase 206
      11. Conclusion 206
      12. References 207
  6. Part IV Migraine genetics and CSD 209
    1. The genetic borderland of migraine and epilepsy 211 By Isamu Aiba and Jeffrey Noebels
      1. Introduction 211
      2. Gene-linked comorbidity 211
      3. The challenge of dissecting seizure and aura excitability defects 212
      4. Clinical overlap of migraine with aura and epilepsy phenotypes 214
      5. Acquired and genetic etiologies of migraine with aura and epilepsies 216
      6. Migraine aura is linked to specific genes with locus and allelic heterogeneity 218
      7. Correspondence of regional brain susceptibility for migraine in genetic epilepsy syndromes 219
      8. Are SD thresholds progressive? 220
      9. Spreading depolarization in cardiorespiratory brainstem regions, a candidate mechanism of SUDEP 221
      10. Brainstem SD is a “second hit” leading to SUDEP 222
      11. Tau ablation prevents seizures, SUDEP and brainstem SD threshold in models of SUDEP 223
      12. Conclusion 223
      13. Acknowledgements 223
      14. References 223
    2. Genetics of monogenic and complex migraine 233 By Else A. Tolner, Else Eising, Gisela M. Terwindt, Michel D. Ferrari and Arn M.J.M. van den Maagdenberg
      1. Migraine is a genetic disease 233
      2. How to identify genes for migraine? 234
      3. Gene identification in monogenic Familial Hemiplegic Migraine 234
      4. Functional studies of gene mutations in monogenic familial hemiplegic migraine 236
      5. Genetic studies in monogenic disorders in which migraine is a prominent part of the clinical phenotype 239
      6. Genome-wide association studies in common polygenic migraine 240
      7. Future directions in genetic migraine research 241
      8. References 243
    3. Lessons from familial hemiplegic migraine and cortical spreading depression 251 By Daniela Pietrobon
      1. Introduction 251
      2. FHM genes and functional consequences of FHM mutations 252
      3. Insights into the mechanisms underlying susceptibility to cortical spreading depression and initiation of migraine attacks from the functional analysis of FHM mouse models 255
      4. Acknowledgements 260
      5. References 260
    4. From cortical spreading depression to trigeminovascular activation in migraine 267 By Turgay Dalkara and Michael A. Moskowitz
      1. CSD causes the visual aura 267
      2. SD may underlie transient neurological dysfunctions preceding attacks 269
      3. Does SD cause headache? 270
      4. Human data supporting the parenchymal inflammatory signaling 274
      5. Meningeal neurogenic inflammation amplifies the parenchymal signal 275
      6. Understanding human CSD and migraine without aura 276
      7. Potential of CSD models to understand migraine and drug development 278
      8. References 278
  7. Part V Modeling and imaging in migraine 285
    1. Mathematical modeling of human cortical spreading depression 287 By Markus A. Dahlem
      1. Introduction 287
      2. Microscopic models: cellular and cytoarchitectonic detail 288
      3. Computational models 291
      4. Macroscopic models: large scale spatiotemporal phenomenology 292
      5. References 301
    2. Tools for high-resolution in vivo imaging of cellular and molecular mechanisms in cortical spreading depression and spreading depolarization 307 By Hana Uhlirova, Peifang Tian, Payam A. Saisan, Mohammad Abbas Yaseen, Jonghwan Lee, Sergei A. Vinogradov, David A. Boas, Sava Sakadžic and Anna Devor ´
      1. Introduction 307
      2. Large-scale imaging of vascular dynamics with microscopic resolution 308
      3. Combining measurements of single-vessel diameter with imaging and quantification of intracellular Ca2+ in neurons and astrocytes 309
      4. NADH autofluorescence: an endogenous marker of energy metabolism 311
      5. Direct imaging of molecular O2 in blood and tissue 312
      6. Employing optogenetics to study inter-cellular communication 314
      7. Conclusions and outlook 314
      8. References 315
    3. Animal models of migraine aura 321 By Shih-Pin Chen, Jeremy Theriot, Cenk Ayata and KC Brennan
      1. Introduction: spreading depression and migraine 321
      2. In vivo and in vitro models of SD susceptibility 322
      3. Experimental preparations 324
      4. Methods to trigger SD 327
      5. Methods to detect CSD 329
      6. SD susceptibility attributes 331
      7. Recommended quality measures for experimental models of migraine aura 333
      8. Future directions 334
      9. References 335
    4. Human models of migraine 347 By Jakob Møller Hansen MD, PhD and Messoud Ashina MD, PhD, DMSc
      1. Introduction 347
      2. The first steps: GTN and the NO-hypothesis 347
      3. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) 351
      4. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) 353
      5. Can we gain from the use of experimental models to study functional consequences of migraine mutations? 354
      6. Conclusion 355
      7. References 355
    5. Imaging pain and headache 363 By Duncan J. Hodkinson, Sophie L. Wilcox and David Borsook
      1. Introduction 363
      2. Functional brain changes in migraine 363
      3. Structural brain changes in migraine 367
      4. Insights from orofacial pain 370
      5. Conclusions 371
      6. References 372
  8. Index 377
Editors Biography

Turgay Dalkara, MD, PhD is Professor of Neurology and Chair of the Institute of Neurological Sciences and Psychiatry at Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. He also holds a joint appointment at the department of Radiology at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Boston.

Michael A. Moskowitz, MD is Professor of Neurology at Harvard Medical School and a former Member of the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Science & Technology. He is also senior neuroscientist in the Departments of Radiology and Neurology at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

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