Energy Efficient Manufacturing: Theory and Applications | KitaabNow

Energy Efficient Manufacturing: Theory and Applications

 42,995
  • Author: John W. Sutherland, David A. Dornfeld, Barbara S. Linke
  • ISBN: 9781118423844
  • Publisher: Wiley Publishing
  • Edition: 1st
  • Publication Date: April 5, 2019
  • Format: Hardback – 468 pages
  • Language: English


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Description

Over the last several years, manufacturers have expressed increasing interest in reducing their energy consumption and have begun to search for opportunities to reduce their energy usage. In this book, the authors explore a variety of opportunities to reduce the energy footprint of manufacturing. These opportunities cover the entire spatial scale of the manufacturing enterprise: from unit process-oriented approaches to enterprise-level strategies. Each chapter examines some aspect of this spatial scale, and discusses and describes the opportunities that exist at that level. Case studies demonstrate how the opportunity may be acted on with practical guidance on how to respond to these opportunities.

Table of Contents
  • 1 Introduction to Energy Efficient Manufacturing 1; Barbara S. Linke and John W. Sutherland
    • 1.1 Energy Use Implications 2
    • 1.2 Drivers and Solutions for Energy Efficiency 3
    • References 9
  • 2 Operation Planning & Monitoring 11; Y.B. Guo
    • 2.1 Unit Manufacturing Processes 11
    • 2.2 Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of Unit Manufacturing Process 13
    • 2.3 Energy Consumption in Unit Manufacturing Process 16
      • 2.3.1 Basic Concepts of Energy, Power, and Work 16
      • 2.3.2 Framework of Energy Consumption 17
    • 2.4 Operation Plan Relevance to Energy Consumption 19
    • 2.5 Energy Accounting in Unit Manufacturing Processes 20
    • 2.6 Processing Energy in Unit Manufacturing Process 21
      • 2.6.1 Cases of Processing Energy Modeling 21
        • 2.6.1.1 Forging 21
        • 2.6.1.2 Orthogonal Cutting 22
        • 2.6.1.3 Grinding 24
        • 2.6.1.4 Specific Energy vs. MRR 25
      • 2.6.2 Energy Measurement 26
    • 2.7 Energy Reduction Opportunities 26
      • 2.7.1 Shortening Process Chain by Hard Machining 28
      • 2.7.2 Substitution of Process Steps 28
      • 2.7.3 Hybrid processes 29
      • 2.7.4 Adaptation of Cooling and Flushing Strategies 29
      • 2.7.5 Remanufacturing 30
    • References 30
  • 3 Materials Processing 33; Karl R. Haapala, Sundar V. Atre, Ravi Enneti, Ian C. Garretson and Hao Zhang
    • 3.1 Steel 34
      • 3.1.1 Steelmaking Technology 35
    • 3.2 Aluminum 36
      • 3.2.1 Aluminum Alloying 37
      • 3.2.2 History of Aluminum Processing 37
      • 3.2.3 Aluminum in Commerce 38
      • 3.2.4 Aluminum Processing 41
      • 3.2.5 Bayer Process 42
      • 3.2.6 Preparation of Carbon 44
      • 3.2.7 Hall-Heroult Electrolytic Process 44
    • 3.3 Titanium 45
      • 3.3.1 Titanium Alloying 46
      • 3.3.2 History of Titanium Processing 47
      • 3.3.3 Titanium in Commerce 48
      • 3.3.4 Titanium Processing Methods 49
      • 3.3.5 Sulfate Process 50
      • 3.3.6 Chloride Process 51
      • 3.3.7 Hunter Process and Kroll Process 51
      • 3.3.8 Remelting Processes 52
      • 3.3.9 Emerging Titanium Processing Technologies 52
    • 3.4 Polymers 54
      • 3.4.1 Life Cycle Environmental and Cost Assessment 59
      • 3.4.2 An Application of Polymer-Powder Processes 59
    • References 61
  • 4 Energy Reduction in Manufacturing via Incremental Forming and Surface Microtexturing 65; Jian Cao and Rajiv Malhotra
    • 4.1 Incremental Forming 66
      • 4.1.1 Conventional Forming Processes 66
      • 4.1.2 Energy Reduction via Incremental Forming 72
      • 4.1.3 Challenges in Incremental Forming 75
        • 4.1.3.1 Toolpath Planning for Enhanced Geometric Accuracy and Process Flexibility 76
        • 4.1.3.2 Formability Prediction and Deformation Mechanics 85
        • 4.1.3.3 Process Innovation and Materials Capability in DSIF 92
        • 4.1.3.4 Future Challenges in Incremental Forming 95
    • 4.2 Surface Microtexturing 97
      • 4.2.1 Energy Based Applications of Surface Microtexturing 97
        • 4.2.1.1 Microtexturing for Friction Reduction 97
        • 4.2.1.2 Microtexturing Methods 101
        • 4.2.1.3 Future Work in Microtexturing 114
    • 4.3 Summary 115
    • 4.4 Acknowledgement 116
    • References 116
  • 5 An Analysis of Energy Consumption and Energy Efficiency in Material Removal Processes 123; Tao Lu and I.S. Jawahir
    • 5.1 Overview 123
    • 5.2 Plant and Workstation Levels 126
    • 5.3 Operation Level 129
    • 5.4 Process Optimization for Energy Consumption 134
      • 5.4.1 Plant Level and Workstation Level 134
      • 5.4.2 Operation Level 137
        • 5.4.2.1 Turning Operation 137
        • 5.4.2.2 Milling Operation 145
        • 5.4.2.3 Drilling Operation 148
        • 5.4.2.4 Grinding Operation 150
    • 5.5 Conclusions 152
    • Reference 154
  • 6 Nontraditional Removal Processes 159; Murali Sundaram and K.P. Rajurkar
    • 6.1 Introduction 159
      • 6.1.2 Working Principle 160
        • 6.1.2.1 Electrical Discharge Machining 160
        • 6.1.2.2 Electrochemical Machining 161
        • 6.1.2.3 Electrochemical Discharge Machining 163
        • 6.1.2.4 Electrochemical Grinding 164
    • 6.2 Energy Efficiency 165
    • Acknowledgments 167
    • References 167
  • 7 Surface Treatment and Tribological Considerations 169; S.R. Schmid and J. Jeswiet
    • 7.1 Introduction 170
    • 7.2 Surface Treatment Techniques 173
      • 7.2.1 Surface Geometry Modification 174
      • 7.2.2 Microstructural Modification 175
      • 7.2.3 Chemical Approaches 179
    • 7.3 Coating Operations 179
      • 7.3.1 Hard Facing 179
      • 7.3.2 Vapor Deposition 183
      • 7.3.3 Miscellaneous Coating Operations 185
    • 7.4 Tribology 189
    • 7.5 Evolving Technologies 191
      • 7.5.1 Biomimetics – Biologically Inspired Design 191
    • 7.6 Micro Manufacturing 192
    • 7.7 Conclusions 194
    • References 194
  • 8 Joining Processes 197; Amber Shrivastava, Manuela Krones and Frank E. Pfefferkorn
    • 8.1 Introduction 198
    • 8.2 Sustainability in Joining 200
    • 8.3 Taxonomy 203
    • 8.4 Data Sources 205
    • 8.5 Efficiency of Joining Equipment 208
    • 8.6 Efficiency of Joining Processes 210
      • 8.6.1 Fusion Welding 211
      • 8.6.2 Chemical Joining Methods 214
      • 8.6.3 Solid-State Welding 216
      • 8.6.4 Mechanical Joining Methods 218
        • 8.6.4.1 Mechanical Fastening 218
        • 8.6.4.2 Adhesive Bonding 219
    • 8.7 Process Selection 220
    • 8.8 Efficiency of Joining Facilities 221
    • 8.9 Case Studies 224
      • 8.9.1 Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) 224
      • 8.9.2 Friction Stir Welding (FSW) 228
    • Reference 235
  • 9 Manufacturing Equipment 239; M. Helu, N. Diaz-Elsayed and D. Dornfeld
    • 9.1 Introduction 239
    • 9.2 Power Measurement 240
    • 9.3 Characterizing the Power Demand 242
      • 9.3.1 Constant Power 242
      • 9.3.2 Variable Power 244
      • 9.3.3 Processing Power 244
    • 9.4 Energy Model 244
    • 9.5 Life Cycle Energy Analysis of Production Equipment 246
    • 9.6 Energy Reduction Strategies 247
      • 9.6.1 Strategies for Equipment with High Processing Power 248
      • 9.6.2 Strategies for Equipment with High Tare Power 249
      • 9.6.2.1 Process Time 249
      • 9.6.2.2 Machine Design 251
    • 9.7 Additional Life Cycle Impacts of Energy Reduction Strategies 252
    • 9.8 Summary 254
    • References 256
  • 10 Energy Considerations in Assembly Operations 261; Camelio, J.A., McCullough, D., Prosch, S. and Rickli, J.L.
    • 10.1 Introduction to Assembly Systems & Operations 262
    • 10.2 Fundamentals of Assembly Operations 263
    • 10.3 Characterizing Assembly System Energy Consumption 264
      • 10.3.1 Indirect Energy 265
      • 10.3.2 Direct Energy 266
    • 10.4 Direct Energy Considerations of Assembly Joining Processes 268
      • 10.4.1 Mechanical Assembly 268
      • 10.4.2 Adhesive Bonding 269
      • 10.4.3 Welding, Brazing, and Soldering 272
    • 10.5 Assembly System Energy Metrics 275
    • 10.6 Case Study: Heavy Duty Truck Assembly 280
      • 10.6.1 Case Study Energy Consumption Analysis Approach 280
      • 10.6.2 Assembly Process Categorization 281
      • 10.6.3 Case Study Energy Analysis Results 285
      • 10.6.4 Discussion and Recommendations 292
    • 10.7 Future of Energy Efficient Assembly Operations 293
    • References 294
    • Appendix 10.A 296
  • 11 Manufacturing Facility Energy Improvement 299; Chris Yuan, Junling Xie and John Nicol
    • 11.1 Introduction 300
    • 11.2 Auxiliary Industrial Energy Consumptions 303
      • 11.2.1 Lighting 303
        • 11.2.1.1 Lighting Technologies 304
        • 11.2.1.2 Opportunities for Improving Energy Efficiency of Industrial Lighting 305
      • 11.2.2 HVAC 307
        • 11.2.2.1 HVAC Systems 308
        • 11.2.2.2 HVAC Energy Efficiency Opportunities 310
      • 11.2.3 Compressed Air 315
        • 11.2.3.1 Compressed Air Technologies 316
        • 11.2.3.2 Improving Energy Efficiency of Air Compressors 317
    • 11.3 Industrial Practices on Energy Assessment and Energy Efficiency Improvement 321
      • 11.3.1 Types of Energy Assessments 321
      • 11.3.2 Energy Assessment Procedures 322
    • 11.4 Energy Management and its Enhancement Approaches 323
      • 11.4.1 Energy Management Description and Benefits 324
      • 11.4.2 Establishing an Energy Management Approach 326
        • 11.4.2.1 ISO 50001 336
    • 11.5 Conclusions 337
    • References 338
  • 12 Energy Efficient Manufacturing Process Planning 339; RuixueYin, Fu Zhao and John W. Sutherland
    • 12.1 Introduction 339
    • 12.2 The Basics of Process Planning 341
      • 12.2.1 Types of Production 342
      • 12.2.2 Process Planning Procedure 344
      • 12.2.3 Process Planning Methods 346
    • 12.3 Energy Efficient Process Planning 350
      • 12.3.1 Energy Consumption and Carbon Footprint Models of Manufacturing Processes 350
      • 12.3.2 A Semi-Generative Process Planning Approach for Energy Efficiency 351
    • 12.4 Case Study 353
    • 12.5 Conclusions 357
    • Reference 358
  • 13 Scheduling for Energy Efficient Manufacturing 359; Nelson A. Uhan, Andrew Liu and Fu Zhao
    • 13.1 Introduction 359
    • 13.2 A Brief Introduction to Scheduling 360
      • 13.2.1 Machine Environments 360
      • 13.2.2 Job Characteristics 362
      • 13.3.3 Feasible Schedules and Gantt Charts 362
      • 13.2.4 Objective Functions: Classic Time-Based Objectives 364
    • 13.3 Machine Environments 365
    • 13.4 Job Characteristics 367
      • 13.4.1 A Very Brief Introduction to Mathematical Optimization 368
      • 13.4.2 A Time-Indexed Integer Linear Program for the Energy-Efficient Flow Shop Problem 370
      • 13.4.3 Algorithms for Solving Integer Linear Programs 376
    • 13.5 Conclusion and Additional Reading 377
    • References 379
  • 14 Energy Efficiency in the Supply Chain 381; Thomas J. Goldsby and Fazleena Badurdeen
    • 14.1 Supply Chain Management 381
    • 14.2 Supply Chain Structure 382
    • 14.3 Supply Chain Processes 385
      • 14.3.1 Customer Relationship Management 387
      • 14.3.2 Supplier Relationship Management 388
      • 14.3.3 Customer Service Management 389
      • 14.3.4 Demand Management 390
      • 14.3.5 Manufacturing Flow Management 391
      • 14.3.6 Order Fulfillment 392
      • 14.3.7 Product Development and Commercialization 393
      • 14.3.8 Returns Management 394
    • 14.4 Supply Chain Management Components 395
    • 14.5 Conclusion 396
    • References 396
    • Endnotes 400
  • 15 Business Models and Organizational Strategies 401; Omar Romero-Hernandez, David Hirsch, Sergio Romero and Sara Beckman
    • 15.1 Introduction 402
    • 15.2 Reference Framework for Selection of Energy Efficiency Projects 404
      • 15.2.1 Mission and Drivers 405
      • 15.2.2 Set Level of Assessment 405
      • 15.2.3 Recognize Opportunities and Risk 406
      • 15.2.4 Select Projects 406
      • 15.2.5 Implementation and Communication 407
    • 15.3 Common Energy Efficiency Opportunities 408
      • 15.3.1 Building Envelope 408
      • 15.3.2 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) 409
      • 15.3.3 Efficient Lighting 410
      • 15.3.4 Efficient Motors and Systems 411
      • 15.3.5 Building Management Systems 412
    • 15.4 Stakeholders 413
      • 15.4.1 Tenants and Owners 413
      • 15.4.2 Regulators 414
      • 15.4.3 Banks/Lenders 414
      • 15.4.4 Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) 415
      • 15.4.5 Business Models 415
    • 15.5 Conclusions 417
    • References 417
  • 16 Energy Efficient or Energy Effective Manufacturing? 421; S. A. Shade and J. W. Sutherland
    • 16.1 Energy Efficiency: A Macro Perspective 422
      • 16.1.1 Government Perspective 422
      • 16.1.2 Company Perspective 423
    • 16.2 The Basics of Energy Efficiency 425
    • 16.3 Limitations of Energy Efficiency 433
    • 16.4 Energy Effectiveness 436
      • 16.4.1 Effectiveness – It’s Up to the Decision Maker 438
      • 16.4.2 Effectiveness – A Choice on Where to Invest 439
      • 16.4.3 Effectiveness – Is An Action Really Worthwhile? 439
    • 16.5 Summary 442
    • 16.6 Acknowledgments 443
    • References 443
    • Index 445
Author(s) Description

John W. Sutherland received his PhD from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and is a Professor and holds the Fehsenfeld Family Headship of Environmental and Ecological Engineering (EEE) at Purdue University. He is one of the world’s leading authorities on the application of sustainability principles to design, manufacturing, and other industrial issues. He has published more than 300 papers in various journals and conference proceedings, authored several book chapters, and is co-author of the text “Statistical Quality Design and Control: Contemporary Concepts and Methods”. He is a Fellow of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and CIRP (International Academy for Production Engineering). His honors and recognitions include the SME Outstanding Young Manufacturing Engineer Award, Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, SAE Ralph R. Teetor Award, SME Education Award, SAE International John Connor Environmental Award, and ASME William T. Ennor Manufacturing Technology Award.

David A. Dornfeld received his Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from UW-Madison in 1976 and was Will C. Hall Family Professor and Chair of Mechanical Engineering at University of California Berkeley. He led the Laboratory for Manufacturing and Sustainability (LMAS) and the Sustainable Manufacturing Partnership studying green/sustainable manufacturing; manufacturing processes; precision manufacturing; process monitoring and optimization. He published over 400 papers, authored three research monographs, contributed chapters to several books and had seven patents. He was a Member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), a Fellow of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), recipient of ASME/SME M. Eugene Merchant Manufacturing Medal, 2015, Ennor Award, 2010 and Blackall Machine Tool and Gage Award, 1986, Fellow of Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME), recipient of 2004 SME Fredrick W. Taylor Research Medal, member Japan Society of Precision Engineering (JSPE) and recipient of 2005 JSPE Takagi Prize, Fellow of University of Tokyo Engineering and Fellow of CIRP (International Academy for Production Engineering). He passed away in March 2016.

Barbara S. Linke obtained her diploma and doctoral degree in Mechanical Engineering from the RWTH Aachen University, Germany. She worked at the Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering WZL from 2002 – 2010 on grinding technology and tooling engineering. From 2010 – 2012, Barbara was a research fellow at the University of California Berkeley. Since November 2012, Barbara Linke has been an assistant professor at the University of California Davis.

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